2022-10-02

1 thought on “198 метода за мирни акции по Джин Шарп

  1. The Methods of Nonviolent Action

    ​​​​​(from Gene Sharp, The Methods of Nonviolent Action, Boston 1973)

    THE METHODS OF NONVIOLENT PROTEST AND PERSUASION
    FORMAL STATEMENTS

    Public speeches
    Letters of opposition or support
    Declarations by organizations and institutions
    Signed public declarations
    Declarations of indictment and intention
    Group or mass petitions
    COMMUNICATIONS WITH A WIDER AUDIENCE

    Slogans, caricatures, and symbols
    Banners, posters, and displayed communications
    Leaflets, pamphlets, and books
    Newspapers and journals
    Records, radio, and television
    Skywriting and earthwriting
    GROUP REPRESENTATIONS

    Deputations
    Mock awards
    Group lobbying
    Picketing
    Mock elections
    SYMBOLIC PUBLIC ACTS

    Displays of flags and symbolic colours
    Wearing of symbols
    Prayer and worship
    Delivering symbolic objects
    Protest disrobings
    Destruction of own property
    Symbolic lights
    Displays of portraits
    Paint as protest
    New signs and names
    Symbolic sounds
    Symbolic reclamations
    Rude gestures
    PRESSURES ON INDIVIDUALS

    “Haunting” officials
    Taunting officials
    Fraternization
    Vigils
    DRAMA AND MUSIC

    Humourous skits and pranks
    Performances of plays and music
    Singing
    PROCESSIONS

    Marches
    Parades
    Religious processions
    Pilgrimages
    Motorcades
    HONOURING THE DEAD

    Political mourning
    Mock funerals
    Demonstrative funerals
    Homage at burial places
    PUBLIC ASSEMBLIES

    Assemblies of protest or support
    Protest meetings
    Camouflaged meetings of protest
    Teach-ins
    WITHDRAWAL AND RENUNCIATION

    Walk-outs
    Silence
    Renouncing honours
    Turning one’s back
    THE METHODS OF SOCIAL NONCOOPERATION
    OSTRACISM OF PERSONS

    Social boycott
    Selective social boycott
    Lysistratic nonaction
    Excommunication
    Interdict
    NONCOOPERATION WITH SOCIAL EVENTS, CUSTOMS, AND INSTITUTIONS

    Suspension of social and sports activities
    Boycott of social affairs
    Student strike
    Social disobedience
    Withdrawal from social institutions
    WITHDRAWAL FROM THE SOCIAL SYSTEM

    Stay-at-home
    Total personal noncooperation
    “Flight” of workers
    Sanctuary
    Collective disappearance
    Protest emigration (hijrat)
    THE METHODS OF ECONOMIC NONCOOPERATION: ECONOMIC BOYCOTTS
    ACTION BY CONSUMERS

    Consumers’ boycott
    Nonconsumption of boycotted goods
    Policy of austerity
    Rent withholding
    Refusal to rent
    National consumers’ boycott
    International consumers’ boycott
    ACTION BY WORKERS AND PRODUCERS

    Workers’ boycott
    Producers’ boycott
    ACTION BY MIDDLEMEN

    Suppliers’ and handlers’ boycott
    ACTION BY OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT

    Traders’ boycott
    Refusal to let or sell property
    Lockout
    Refusal of industrial assistance
    Merchants’ “general strike”
    ACTION BY HOLDERS OF FINANCIAL RESOURCES

    Withdrawal of bank deposits
    Refusal to pay fees, dues, and assessments
    Refusal to pay debts or interest
    Severance of funds and credit
    Revenue refusal
    Refusal of a government’s money
    ACTION BY GOVERNMENTS

    Domestic embargo
    Blacklisting of traders
    International sellers’ embargo
    International buyers’ embargo
    International trade embargo
    THE METHODS OF ECONOMIC NONCOOOPERATION: THE STRIKE
    SYMBOLIC STRIKES

    Protest strike
    Quickie walkout (lightning strike)
    AGRICULTURAL STRIKES

    Peasant strike
    Farm workers’ strike
    STRIKES BY SPECIAL GROUPS

    Refusal of impressed labour
    Prisoners’ strike
    Craft strike
    Professional strike
    ORDINARY INDUSTRIAL STRIKES

    Establishment strike
    Industry strike
    Sympathy strike
    RESTRICTED STRIKES

    Detailed strike
    Bumper strike
    Slowdown strike
    Working-to-rule strike
    Reporting “sick” (sick-in)
    Strike by resignation
    Limited strike
    Selective strike
    MULTI-INDUSTRY STRIKES

    Generalised strike
    General strike
    COMBINATION OF STRIKES AND ECONOMIC CLOSURES

    Hartal
    Economic shutdown
    THE METHODS OF POLITICAL NONCOOPERATION
    REJECTION OF AUTHORITY

    Withholding or withdrawal of allegiance
    Refusal of public support
    Literature and speeches advocating resistance
    CITIZENS’ NONCOOPERATION WITH GOVERNMENT

    Boycott of legislative bodies
    Boycott of elections
    Boycott of government employment and positions
    Boycott of government departments, agencies, and other bodies
    Withdrawal from governmental educational institutions
    Boycott of government-supported institutions
    Refusal of assistance to enforcement agents
    Removal of own signs and placemarks
    Refusal to accept appointed officials
    Refusal to dissolve existing institutions
    CITIZENS’ ALTERNATIVES TO OBEDIENCE

    Reluctant and slow compliance
    Nonobedience in absence of direct supervision
    Popular nonobedience
    Disguised disobedience
    Refusal of an assemblage or meeting to disperse
    Sitdown
    Noncooperation with conscription and deportation
    Hiding, escape, and false identities
    Civil disobedience of “illegitimate” laws
    ACTION BY GOVERNMENT PERSONNEL

    Selective refusal of assistance by government aides
    Blocking of lines of command and information
    Stalling and obstruction
    General administrative noncooperation
    Judicial noncooperation
    Deliberate inefficiency and selective noncooperation by enforcement agents
    Mutiny
    DOMESTIC GOVERNMENTAL ACTION

    Quasi-legal evasions and delays
    Noncooperation by constituent governmental units
    INTERNATIONAL GOVERNMENTAL ACTION

    Changes in diplomatic and other representation
    Delay and cancellation of diplomatic events
    Withholding of diplomatic recognition
    Severance of diplomatic relations
    Withdrawal from international organisations
    Refusal of membership in international bodies
    Expulsion from international organisations
    THE METHODS OF NONVIOLENT INTERVENTION
    PSYCHOLOGICAL INTERVENTION

    Self-exposure to the elements
    The fast
    Fast of moral pressure
    Hunger strike
    Satyagrahic fast
    Reverse trial
    Nonviolent harassment
    PHYSICAL INTERVENTION

    Sit-in
    Stand-in
    Ride-in
    Wade-in
    Mill-in
    Pray-in
    Nonviolent raids
    Nonviolent air raids
    Nonviolent invasion
    Nonviolent interjection
    Nonviolent obstruction
    Nonviolent occupation
    SOCIAL INTERVENTION

    Establishing new social patterns
    Overloading of facilities
    Stall-in
    Speak-in
    Guerrilla theatre
    Alternative social institutions
    Alternative communication system
    ECONOMIC INTERVENTION

    Reverse strike
    Stay-in strike
    Nonviolent land seizure
    Defiance of blockades
    Politically motivated counterfeiting
    Preclusive purchasing
    Seizure of assets
    Dumping
    Selective patronage
    Alternative markets
    Alternative transportation systems
    Alternative economic institutions
    POLITICAL INTERVENTION

    Overloading of administrative systems
    Disclosing identities of secret agents
    Seeking imprisonment
    Civil disobedience of “neutral” laws
    Work-on without collaboration
    Dual sovereignty and parallel government​​​​​
    –-

Вашият коментар

Вашият имейл адрес няма да бъде публикуван. Задължителните полета са отбелязани с *